TinyFSM

Usage

Refer to the API examples: /examples/api/ provided with the TinyFSM package for a quick overview. Recommended starting points:

  • Simple Switch: /examples/api/simple_switch.cpp
  • Moore Machine: /examples/api/moore_machine.cpp
  • Elevator Project: /examples/elevator/

The examples in the documentation below are mainly based on the "Elevator Project" example.

1. Declare Events

Declare events that your state machine will listen to. Events are classes derived from the tinyfsm::Event class.

Example:

struct FloorEvent : tinyfsm::Event
{
  int floor;
};

struct Call        : FloorEvent { };
struct FloorSensor : FloorEvent { };
struct Alarm       : tinyfsm::Event { };

In the example above, we declare three events. Note that events are regular classes, which are passed as arguments to the react() members of a state class. In this example, we use a member variable "floor", which is used to specify the floor number on "Call" and "FloorSensors" events.

2. Declare the State Machine Class

Declare your state machine class. State machines are classes derived from the tinyfsm::Fsm template class, where T is the type name of the state machine itself.

You need to declare the following public members:

  • react() function for each event
  • entry() and exit() functions

Example:

class Elevator
: public tinyfsm::Fsm<Elevator>
{
public:
  /* default reaction for unhandled events */
  void react(tinyfsm::Event const &) { };

  virtual void react(Call        const &);
  virtual void react(FloorSensor const &);
  void         react(Alarm       const &);

  virtual void entry(void) { };  /* entry actions in some states */
  void         exit(void)  { };  /* no exit actions */
};

Note that you are free to declare the functions non-virtual if you like. This has implications on the execution speed: In the example above, the react(Alarm) function is declared non-virtual, as all states share the same reaction for this event. This makes code execution faster when dispatching the "Alarm" event, since no vtable lookup is needed.

3. Declare the States

Declare the states of your state machine. States are classes derived from the state machine class.

Note that state classes are implicitly instantiated. If you want to reuse states in multiple state machines, you need to declare them as templates (see /examples/api/multiple_switch.cpp).

Example:

class Panic
: public Elevator
{
  void entry() override;
};

class Moving
: public Elevator
{
  void react(FloorSensor const &) override;
};

class Idle
: public Elevator
{
  void entry() override;
  void react(Call const & e) override;
};

In this example, we declare three states. Note that the "elevator" example source code does not declare the states separately, but rather defines the code directly in the declaration.

4. Implement Actions and Event Reactions

In most cases, event reactions consist of one or more of the following steps:

  • Change some local data
  • Send events to other state machines
  • Transit to different state

Important: Make sure that the transit<>() function call is the last command executed within a reaction function!

Important: Don't use transit<>() in entry/exit actions!

Example:

void Idle::entry() {
  send_event(MotorStop());
}

void Idle::react(Call const & e) {
  dest_floor = e.floor;

  if(dest_floor == current_floor)
    return;

  /* lambda function used for transition action */
  auto action = [] { 
    if(dest_floor > current_floor)
      send_event(MotorUp());
    else if(dest_floor < current_floor)
      send_event(MotorDown());
  };

  transit<Moving>(action);
};

In this example, we use a lambda function as transition action. The transit<>() function does the following:

  1. Call the exit() function of the current state
  2. Call the the transition action if provided
  3. Change the current state to the new state
  4. Call the entry() function of the new state

Note that you can also pass condition functions to the transit<>() function.

5. Define the Initial State

Use the macro FSM_INITIAL_STATE(fsm, state) for defining the initial state (or "start state") of your state machine:

Example:

FSM_INITIAL_STATE(Elevator, Idle)

This sets the current state of the "Elevator" state machine to "Idle". More specifially, it defines a template specialization for Fsm<Elevator>::set_initial_state(), setting the current state to Idle.

6. Define Custom Initialization

If you need to perform custom initialization, you can override the reset() member function in your state machine class. If you are using state variables, you can re-instantiate your states by calling tinyfsm::StateList<MyStates...>::reset().

Example:

class Switch : public tinyfsm::Fsm<Switch>
{
  public: static void reset(void) {
    tinyfsm::StateList<Off, On>::reset();  // reset all states
    myvar = 0;
    ...
  }
  ...
}

Make sure to always set the current state, or you'll end up with a null pointer dereference.

7. Use FsmList for Event Dispatching

You might have noticed some calls to a send_event() function in the example above. This is NOT a function provided with TinyFSM. Since event dispatching can be implemented in several ways, TinyFSM leaves this open to you. The "elevator" example implements the send_event() function as direct event dispatching, without using event queues. This has the advantage that execution is much faster, since no RTTI is needed and the decision which function to call for an event class is made at compile-time. On the other hand, special care has to be taken when designing the state machines, in order to avoid loops.

Code from "fsmlist.hpp":

typedef tinyfsm::FsmList<Motor, Elevator> fsm_list;

template<typename E>
void send_event(E const & event)
{
  fsm_list::template dispatch<E>(event);
}

Here, send_event() dispatches events to all state machines in the list. It is important to understand that this approach comes with no performance penalties at all, as long as the default reaction is defined empty within the state machine declaration.